Concerning climate change vulnerabilities and the need to promote adaptation, the risks and consequences of flooding in different areas of the world such as Sweden or Colombia were presented throughout case-studies. The need to assure preventive investments that will lower the costs and damages is crucial and should be performed in the context of a process with the intervention of the different stakeholders from the beginning and with a broader view of the problem. The situation of the erosion of the Artic coast was also discussed, with impressing results of what is taking place, with a proposed Polar Coastal Risk Index being presented to help as monitor current and future impacts.
In relation to climate change mitigation, a broader view with examples of future pathways towards an extended use of renewable electricity from Japan, Portugal, Iceland, and Colombia were presented as part as a carbon neutral requirement under the Paris Agreement. Several problems, such as the integration of renewable electricity under energy crisis, the scarcity of mineral elements, and the future of storage technology were considered as very relevant.
However, other factors such as nature conservation impacts, and particularly the population involvement and current political and business decisions will determine the feasibility of scenarios that should be discussed broadly. All industrial sectors should prioritize the reduction of emissions through a life-cycle analysis as showed in the case of Colombia transformation of clay for use in buildings. Small-scale projects, including at the household scale, can contribute to climate mitigation in a more sustainable way.
The evaluation of the sustainability of energy projects and companies was discussed. An analysis of wind power projects supported by clean development mechanism and an evaluation of the power companies’ sustainability, both in Brasil, showed that co-benefits of wind farms are limited and relevant to further analysis, and that power companies should pay greater attention to reducing greenhouse gases under a climate change mitigation strategy.